Allison, M., Cunningham, M., McClure, M., Bull, S. Berman, S. 2018. Using Mobile Health to Reduce Disparities in Early Language Development: A Narrative Review. Academic Pediatrics. In Press.

Bull, S., Thomas, D., Nyanza, E., Engallaba, E. 2018. Tanzania Health Information Technology System (T-HIT): Results from a pilot test of a tablet based system to improve prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). JMIR. 15;6(1):e16. Doi: 10.2196/mhealth.8513

Bull, S. 2018. Sexual Assertiveness Skills and Sexual Decision-Making in Adolescent Girls: Moving to Replication, Scale and Digital Health Impact. Program. Invited Editorial, American Journal of Public Health. 108(1):18-19

Bull, S., Schmiege, S., Devine, S., Shlay, S. 2017. Text Messaging and Teen Sexual Health Behavior: Long-Term Follow up of a Cluster Randomized Trial. Computers Informatics Nursing: 35(11);549-553.

Andriesen, J., Bull, S., Dietrech, J., Haberer, J., Van der Pol, B., Voronin, Y., Wall, K., Whalen, C., Priddy, F. 2017. Considerations for the Use of Digital Technologies in Clinical HIV Research. Journal of Medical Internet Research.

Ybarra, M. Prescott, T., Phillips, G., Bull, S. Parsons, J., Mustanski, B. 2017. A Texting HIV Prevention Program for Sexual Minority Male Adolescents: An RCT Short title: A Texting HIV Prevention Program. Pediatrics. 140(1):pii:e20162999. DOI 10.1542/peds.2016-2999. PMID: 28659456.

Prescott, T., Phillips, G., Dubois, Z., Bull, S., Mustanski, B., Ybarra, M. 2016. Reaching Adolescent Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Men Online: Development and refinement of a national recruitment strategy. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 18(8):e200. DOI 10.2196/jmir.5602. PMID: 27492781.

Domek, G., Contreras, I., O’Leary, S., Bull, S., Furniss, A., Kempe, A., Asturias, E. 2016. SMS text message reminders to improve infant vaccination coverage in Guatemala: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Vaccine. 34(21):2437-2443. DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.03.065.

Ybarra, M., Prescott, T., Phillips, G., Parsons, J., Bull, S., Mustanski, B. 2016. Ethical considerations in conducting a text messaging-based HIV prevention program with gay, bisexual, and queer adolescent males. Journal of Adolescent Health. 59(1):44-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.adohealth.2016.03.020. PMID: 27185621.

Bull, S. 2016. Beyond acceptability and feasibility: moving mHealth into Impact. Invited Editorial, mHealth. doi: 10.21037/mhealth.2016.12.02

Bull, S., Devine, S., Schmiege, S. Campbell, J., Pickard, L., Shlay, J. 2016. Text Messaging, Teen Outreach Program and Sexual Health Behavior: A Cluster Randomized Trial. American Journal of Public Health. 106(Suppl 1): S117–S124.doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303363

White, A.*, Thomas, D., Bull, S. 2016. Health Worker mHealth Utilization: A Systematic Review. Computer Informatics Nursing. Computers Informatics Nursing. 34(5):206-214

Baltierra, N., Pike, E., LeGrand, S. Bull, S., Hightow-Weidman, L., 2016. More than just tracking time: complex measures of user engagement with an internet-based health promotion intervention. Journal of Biomedical Informatics. 59:299-307. DOI 10.1016/

Bull, S., and Ezeanochie, N.* 2016. From Foucault to Freire through Facebook: Toward an Integrated Theory of mHealth. Health Education and Behavior. 43(4):399-411. DOI 1090198115605310. PMID: 26384499

Ybarra, M., Prescott, T., Phillips, G., Bull, S., Parsons, J., Mustanski, B. 2015. Iteratively Developing an mHealth HIV Prevention Program for Sexual Minority Adolescent Men. AIDS Behav DOI 10.1007/s10461-015-1146-3

Seal, D.W., Benotsch, E.G., Green, M., Snipes, D.J., Bull, S.S., Cejka, A., Perschbacher Lance, S., & Nettles, C.D. 2015 The use of Internet chat rooms to meet sexual partners: A comparison of non-heterosexually identified men with heterosexually-identified men and women. International Journal of Sexual Health. 27(1):1-15. DOI: 10.1080/19317611.2014.918921

Harpin, S., Ezeanochie, N.*, Bull, S. 2015. Adolescent mobile phone use and mobile-phone based health promotion. Adolescent Medicine: State of the art reviews. 25(3):631-642.

Shegog, R., Brown, K., Bull, S., Christensen, J., Heiftje, K., Jozkowski, K., Ybarra, M. 2015. Serious Games for Sexual Health. Games for Health (G4H). 4(2): 69-77. doi:10.1089/g4h.2014.0139.

Devine, S. Leeds, C., Shlay, J. Leytem, A. Baum, R., Bull, S. 2015. Methods to assess youth engagement in a text messaging supplement to an effective teen pregnancy program. Journal of Biomedical Informatics. 56:379-386. DOI:

Muessig, K.E., Nekkanti, M., Bauermeister, J., Bull, S., Hightow-Weidman, L.B. 2015. A systematic review of recent smartphone, Internet and Web 2.0 interventions to address the HIV Continuum of Care. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 12(1):173-190.

Ybarra, M., Mwaba, K., Roman, N. Prescott, T., Rooi, B., Bull, S. 2014. Opportunities for technology-based HIV prevention programming among high students in Cape Town, South Africa. AIDS Care. 26(12):1562-7. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2014.936814.

Bull, S., Levine, D., Black, S.* Santelli, J. 2014. Recruitment and retention of high-risk youth for research using social media. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies: An International Interdisciplinary Journal for Research, Policy and Care. 8:2, 171-181.

Devine S., Shlay S., Bull S. 2014. Enhancing a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program with Text Messaging: Engaging Minority Youth to Develop TOP® Plus Text. Journal of Adolescent Health. 54;S78eS83.

Bull, S. 2014. The Get Yourself Tested (GYT) and the future of health communications campaigns. Invited editorial, Sexually Transmitted Disease. 41(3):158-160. Doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000103.

Ybarra, M., Bull, S. Prescott, TL, Birungi, R. 2014. Acceptability and feasibility of CyberSenga, an Internet-based HIV prevention program for adolescents in Mbarara, Uganda. AIDS Care. 26;4:441-447, DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2013.841837

Benotsch, E., Martin, A., Snipes, D., Bull, S. 2013. Significant and Non-Significant Associations Between Technology Use and Sexual Risk: A Need for More Empirical Attention. Journal of Adolescent Health 53:146-149.

Rabin, B., Gaglio, B.*, Sanders, T., Henton, M., Nekhlyudov, L., Bull, S., Marcus, A., Dearing, J. 2013. Developing new products to support Patient-Centered Cancer communication: A case example from the Cancer Communication Research Center. Clinical Medicine &amp Research 11(3):128 DOI:10.3121/cmr.2013.1176.ps1-21

Rabin, B., Gaglio, B.*, Sanders, T., Nekhlyudov, L., Bull, S., Marcus, A., 2013. A Systematic Review of Web-Based Cancer Prognostic Calculators: Can They Support Patient-Centered Communication with Cancer Patients? Clinical Medicine & Research 11(3):128. DOI: 10.3121/cmr.2013.1176.ps1-22.

Rabin, B., Gaglio, B.*, Sanders, T., Nekhlyudov, L., Dearing, J., Bull, S. Glasgow, R., Marcus, A. 2013. Predicting cancer prognosis using interactive online tools: A systematic review and implications for cancer care providers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 22(10):1645-56.

Ybarra, M., Bull, S., Prescott, T., Kochmaros, J., Bangsberg, D., Kiwanuka, J. 2013. Adolescent abstinence and unprotected sex in CyberSenga, an Internet-based HIV prevention program: randomized clinical trial of efficacy. PLOS One. 14;8(8):e70083

Black, S.*, Schmiege, S.J., Bull, S. 2013. Actual versus perceived sexual risk among peers in online social networks. Translational Behavioral Medicine. 3(3):312-319
Muessig, K., Pike, EC, Fowler, B, LeGrand, S, Parsons, J., Bull, S. Wilson, PA, Wohl, D, Hightow-Weidman, LB. 2013. Putting Prevention in their Pockets: developing mobile phone based HIV interventions for Black men who have sex with men. AIDS Care. 27(4):211-22

Benotsch, E.G., Snipes, D.J., Martin, A.M., & Bull, S.S. 2013. Sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in young adults. Journal of Adolescent Health. 52(3):307-13

Bull, S., Levine, D., Black, S.*, Schmiege, S. Santelli, J. 2012. Social Media-Delivered Sexual Health Intervention: A cluster-randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 43(5): 467-474.

Ybarra, M., Prescott, T., Biringi, R., Bull, S. 2012. Usability and Navigability of an HIV/AIDS Internet Intervention for Adolescents in a Resource Limited Setting. Computers Informatics Nursing. 30 (11): 587-595.

Allison, S., Bauermeister, J., Bull, S., Lightfoot, M., Mustanski, B., Shegog, R., Levine, D. 2012. Research at the Intersection of Youth, Technology & New Media, and Sexual Health: Moving the Agenda Forward. Journal of Adolescent Health. 51(3):207-212.

Gilliam, M., Allison, S., Boyar, R., Bull, S., Guse, K., Santelli, J. 2011. New Media and Research: Considering next steps. Sex Res Soc Policy, 8:67-72

Mitchell, K., Ybarra, M., Bull, S. 2011. Cell phone usage among adolescents in Uganda: acceptability for relaying health information. Health Educ Res. 26 (5):770-781.

Bull, S., Breslin, L.*, Wright, E., Black, S.*, Levine, D., Santelli, J. 2011. An ethics case study of HIV prevention research on Facebook: The Just/Us Study. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 36(10):1082-1092.

Wright, E., Fortune, T., Juzang, I., Bull, S. 2011. Developing an HIV Prevention Intervention for delivery using Text Messaging: The 411 for Safe Text. AIDS Care. 23(5) 534:541

Levine, D., Madsen, A., Barar, R., Wright, E., Bull, S. 2011. Asynchronous Focus Groups on My Space: Creating Cultural and Environmental Relevance for Hard-to-Reach Populations. Journal of Health Communication. 16(4):448-54.

Juzang, I., Black, S*., Fortune, T., Wright, E., Bull, S. 2011. The 411 for Safe Text: Outcomes from a pilot project using text messaging for HIV prevention. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare. 17(3):150-153.

Birungi, R., Nabembezi, D., Kiwanuka, J., Ybarra, M. Bull, S. 2010. Cyber-Senga: Ugandan youth preferences for content in an Internet-delivered comprehensive sexuality education program. East African Journal of Public Health, 7 (1): 1-25.
Fortune, T., Wright, E., Juzang, I., Bull, S. 2010. Recruitment, enrollment and retention of young black men for HIV prevention research: Experiences from the 411 for Safe Text Project. Contemporary Clinical Trials. Mar;31(2):151-6.

Padilla, R., Bull, S., Fernald, D., Gutierrez, S., Havraneck, E., Steiner, J. 2010. Use of Focus Groups to Develop a Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Website. Health Promotion Practice. 11(1):140-147.

Leeman-Castillo, B., Raghunath, S., Beaty, B., Steiner, J., Bull, S. 2010. LUCHAR: Battling heart disease with computer technology for Latinos. American Journal of Public Health 100(2):272-275.

Bull, S., Ortiz, C., Vallejos, D., Pratte, K., Whitesell, N., Rietmeijer, C. McFarlane, M. 2008. Effects of an Internet-based HIV Prevention intervention for young adults online: The Youthnet Project. AIDS and Behavior. 13(3):474-87.

Bull, S., Vallejos, D., Levine, D., Ortiz, C. 2008. Improving recruitment and retention for an online randomized controlled trial: Experience from the Youthnet study. AIDS Care 20: 887-9.

Ybarra, M., Bull, S. 2007. Current trends in Internet-based and cell-phone based HIV prevention and intervention programs. Current HIV/AIDS Reports. 4:201-207

Bull, S., Phibbs, S., McFarlane, M., Watson, S. 2007. What do Young Adults Expect When They Go Online? Lessons for development of an STD/HIV and pregnancy prevention website. Journal of Medical Internet Systems. 39(2):149-158.

Pequegnat, W., Rosser, BR, Bowen, A., Bull, S., DiCelmente, R., Bockting, W., Elford, J., Fishbein, M., Gurak, L., Horvath, K., Konstan, J., Noar, S., Ross, M., Sherr, L., Spiegel, D., Zimmerman, R. 2007. Internet based HIV/STD Prevention Survey Research: Practical Challenges and Opportunities. AIDS and Behavior. Jul;11(4):505-21.

King, D.*, Bull, S., Christianson, S., Nelson, C.*, Glasgow, R. 2006. Developing and Using Interactive Health CD-ROMS As a Complement To Primary Care—Lessons from Two Research Studies. Diabetes Spectrum. 17(4):234-242

Bull, S., Gaglio, B.*, McKay, G., Glasgow, R.E. 2005. Harnessing the Potential of the Internet to Promote Chronic Illness Self-Management: Diabetes as an Example of How Well Are We Doing. Chronic Illness 1:143-155

Glasgow, R., Bull, S., Piette, J., Steiner, J. 2004. Interactive Behavior Change Technology: A partial solution to the competing demands of primary care. Am J Prev Med 27(2S):80-87.

Bull, S., Lloyd, L., Rietmeijer, C., McFarlane, M. 2004. Recruitment and retention of an online sample for an HIV prevention intervention targeting men who have sex with men: The Smart Sex Quest Project. AIDS Care 16(8):931-943.
Bull, S., Lloyd, L., Rietmeijer, C., McFarlane, M. 2004. The Process of Seeking Sex Partners Online and Implications for STI/HIV Prevention. AIDS Care. 16(8):1012-1020.

McFarlane, M., Kachur, R., Bull, S. Rietmeijer, C. 2004. Can the Internet facilitate women’s risk for sexually transmitted infections? Journal of Women’s Health. 13(6):689-94.

McFarlane, M., Bull, S., Rietmeijer, C. 2003. Youth on the Internet: Risk Behaviors for STD/HIV. Journal of Adolescent Health. 31:11-16

Bull, S., Gillette, C., Glasgow, R., Estabrooks, P. 2003. Worksite health promotion research: To what extent can we generalize the results and what is needed to translate research into practice? Health Education and Behavior. 30: 537-549.

Rietmeijer, C.A., Bull, S., McFarlane, M. Landrigan Patnaik, J., & Douglas, J.M. 2003. Risks and benefits of the Internet for populations at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 30:15-19.

Bull, S., McFarlane, M., King, D. 2001. Barriers to STD/HIV prevention on the Internet Health Education Research. 16 (6):661-670.

Glasgow, R., Bull, S. 2001 Making a difference with Interactive technologies: Considerations in using and evaluating computerized aides for Diabetes self-management education. Diabetes Spectrum 14(2): 99-106.

Rietmeijer, C., Bull, S., McFarlane, M. 2001. Sex and the Internet. AIDS. 15(11) 1433-4.

Bull, S., McFarlane, M., Rietmeijer, C. 2001. HIV/STD Risk Behaviors Among Men Seeking Sex with Men Online. American Journal of Public Health. 91(6):988-989.

McFarlane, M., Bull, S., Rietmeijer, C.A. 2000. Use of the Internet to solicit sex partners and related risk for STD among an inner city STD clinic population. Journal of the American Medical Association 284(4):443-446.

Bull S., McFarlane, M. 2000. Soliciting Sex on the Internet. Sexually Transmitted Diseases.27(9):545-550


Peer Reviewed Book Chapters and Books

Bull, S., Schmiege, S., Hammes, A., Devine, S., Gutierrez, Y., Shlay, J. 2018. Measurement and impacts of engagement with a text message program on pregnancy prevention among youth. In Moreno and Hoopes (eds) Technology and Adolescent Health Behavior: In School and Beyond. Elsevier. Invited chapter in development.

Bull, S., Walker, T.*, Levine, D. 2014. Communities and Technology: Enhancements in HIV Prevention Research and Practice among Youth and Young Adults. In Rhodes, S (Ed) Innovations in HIV Prevention and Practice through Community Engagement. Springer, New York, NY.

Bull, S., Domek, G.*, Thomas, D. 2014. eHealth and Global Health Promotion. In Zimmerman (ed) Global Health Promotion. Jossey Bass, SF.

Bull, S. Technology based health promotion. 2014. In the Encyclopedia of Health Communication. Sage Publications.

Buhi, E., Blunt, H., Wheldon, C., Bull, S. 2013. Sexuality and New Technologies. In: APA Handbook of Sexuality and Psychology, Volume 1: Person Based Approaches. Tolman, D., Diamond, L. (Eds). American Psychological Association, Columbia, MD.

Bull, S. 2012. A history of technology based health promotion. In: Noar, S. and Harrington N. (Eds): Interactive Health Communication Technologies: Promising Strategies for Health Behavior Change. Routledge, New York.

Bull, S. 2010. Technology-Based Health Promotion. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Bull, S., McFarlane, M. 2007. HIV/STD and the Internet. In: McFarlane, M. (Ed.) Current Trends in STD Prevention. Behavioral Intervention Research Branch, Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. US Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, GA.

Bull S. Internet and other Computer Technology-based Interventions for STD/HIV prevention. 2007. In: Edgar, T., Noar, S. M., & Freimuth, V.S. (Eds.). 2008. Communication perspectives on HIV/AIDS for the 21st century. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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